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Science is a systematic endeavor that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
The earliest written records of identifiable predecessors to modern science come from Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia from around 3000 to 1200 BCE. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped the Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages, but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age and later by the efforts of Byzantine Greek scholars who brought Greek manuscripts from the dying Byzantine Empire to Western Europe in the Renaissance.
The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived " natural philosophy", which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape, along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science".
Modern science is typically divided into three major branches: natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study the physical world; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study formal systems, governed by axioms and rules. There is disagreement whether the formal sciences are science disciplines, because they do not rely on empirical evidence. Applied sciences are disciplines that use scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as in engineering and medicine.
New knowledge in science is advanced by research from scientists who are motivated by curiosity about the world and a desire to solve problems. Contemporary scientific research is highly collaborative and is usually done by teams in academic and research institutions, government agencies, and companies. The practical impact of their work has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the ethical and moral development of commercial products, armaments, health care, public infrastructure, and environmental protection. ( Full article...)
Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) was an Austrian monk who is often called the "father of genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that there was particular inheritance of traits according to his laws of inheritance.
It was not until the early 20th century that the importance of his ideas were realized. In 1900, his work was rediscovered by Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak. His results were quickly replicated, and genetic linkage quickly worked out. Biologists flocked to the theory, while it was not yet applicable to many phenomena, it sought to give a genotypic understanding of heredity which they felt was lacking in previous studies of heredity, which focused on phenotypic approaches.
Adenine (A), to build a physical model of DNA in 1953. (from History of science)Watson and Crick used many aluminium templates like this one, which is the single base
Galileo Galilei by Leoni (from Scientific Revolution)Portrait of
Mari in what is now Syria (from History of science)Clay models of animal livers dating between the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries BCE, found in the royal palace at
Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine. (from History of science)15th-century manuscript of
Royal Society had its origins in Gresham College in the City of London, and was the first scientific society in the world. (from Scientific Revolution)The
Newton's Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light (from Scientific Revolution)
Alessandro Volta demonstrates the first electrical cell to Napoleon in 1801. (from History of science)
Plato's Academy. 1st century mosaic from Pompeii (from History of science)
Isaac Newton initiated classical mechanics in physics. (from History of science)
Uruk (Iraq), 320-150 BCE, the list gives each constellation, the number of stars and the distance information to the next constellation in ells (from History of science)Star list with distance information,
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in Athanasius Kircher, La Chine ... Illustrée, Amsterdam, 1670. (from Scientific Revolution)
Napier's Bones, an early calculating device invented by John Napier (from Scientific Revolution)An ivory set of
The Sceptical Chymist, a foundational text of chemistry, written by Robert Boyle in 1661 (from Scientific Revolution)Title page from
Vesalius's intricately detailed drawings of human dissections in Fabrica helped to overturn the medical theories of Galen. (from Scientific Revolution)
method of exhaustion to approximate the value of π. (from History of science)Archimedes used the
Otto von Guericke's experiments on electrostatics, published 1672 (from Scientific Revolution)
Roger Bacon at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History (from History of science)Statue of
Antikythera mechanism (150–100 BCE). (from History of science)Schematic of the
Oxyrhynchus and dated to c. 100 CE. (from History of science)One of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid's Elements, found at
Francis Bacon was a pivotal figure in establishing the scientific method of investigation. Portrait by Frans Pourbus the Younger (1617). (from Scientific Revolution)
atomic bomb ushered in " Big Science" in physics. (from History of science)The
veins from William Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus. Harvey demonstrated that blood circulated around the body, rather than being created in the liver. (from Scientific Revolution)Image of
Isaac Newton's Principia, developed the first set of unified scientific laws. (from Scientific Revolution)
ancient Egypt (from History of science)The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) from
Vienna Dioscurides, which shows a set of seven famous physicians (from History of science)The frontispiece of the
proton–proton collision. It decays almost immediately into two jets of hadrons and two electrons, visible as lines. (from History of science)One possible signature of a Higgs boson from a simulated
Ptolemaic model of the spheres for Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Georg von Peuerbach, Theoricae novae planetarum, 1474. (from Scientific Revolution)
Charles Darwin started his "B" notebook on the Transmutation of Species, and on page 36 wrote "I think" above his first evolutionary tree. (from History of science)In mid-July 1837
Isaac Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller (from Scientific Revolution)
Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations, the first modern work of economics (from History of science)
Precession of the perihelion – exaggerated in the case of Mercury, but observed in the case of S2's apsidal precession around Sagittarius A* (from Scientific method)
William Gilbert's De Magnete, a pioneering work of experimental science (from Scientific Revolution)Diagram from
metallurgy, as evidenced by the wrought-iron Pillar of Delhi. (from History of science)Ancient India was an early leader in
Academy of Sciences was established in 1666. (from Scientific Revolution)The French
Air pump built by Robert Boyle. Many new instruments were devised in this period, which greatly aided in the expansion of scientific knowledge. (from Scientific Revolution)
Galileo Galilei, father of modern science. (from History of science)
Alfred Wegener in Greenland in the winter of 1912–13. He is most remembered as the originator of continental drift hypothesis by suggesting in 1912 that the continents are slowly drifting around the Earth. (from History of science)
ongoing process. This diagram represents one variant, and there are many others. (from Scientific method)The scientific method is often represented as an
DNA with David Deutsch, proponent of invariant scientific explanations (2009) (from Scientific method)Model of
Savery Engine was the first successful steam engine (from Scientific Revolution)The 1698
Zhang Heng's seismometer of 132 CE (from History of science)A modern replica of Han dynasty polymath scientist