With the NISO standardization the NLM initiative has gained a wider reach, and several other repositories, such as
Redalyc, adopted the XML formatting for
The JATS provides a set of XML elements and attributes for describing the textual and graphical content of journal articles
as well as some non-article material such as letters, editorials, and book and product reviews.
JATS allows for descriptions of the full article content or just the article header metadata;
and allows other kinds of contents, including research and non-research articles, letters, editorials, and book and product reviews.
Since its introduction, NCBI's NLM Archiving and Interchange
DTD suite has become the
de facto standard for journal article markup in
scholarly publishing. With the introduction of NISO JATS, it has been elevated to a
Even without public data interchange, the advantages of NISO JATS adoption affords publishers in terms of streamlining production workflows and optimizing system interoperability.
NLM JATS, version 1
March 31, 2003 (2003-03-31): NLM DTD v1.0 introduced.
November 5, 2003 (2003-11-05): Version 1.1 update released.
NLM JATS, version 2
December 30, 2004 (2004-12-30): Version 2.0 major update released. It is designed to support customization best-practices.
November 14, 2005 (2005-11-14): Version 2.1 update released with the addition the Article Authoring DTD.
June 8, 2006 (2006-06-08): Version 2.2 update released.
March 28, 2007 (2007-03-28): Version 2.3 update released.
NLM JATS, version 3
November 21, 2008 (2008-11-21): Version 3.0 major update released.
NISO JATS, version 1.0
March 30, 2011 (2011-03-30) – September 30, 2011 (2011-09-30): First draft, NISO Z39.96.201x version 0.4 released; six-month comment period.
July 15, 2012 (2012-07-15): NISO JATS, v1.0 received NISO approval.
August 9, 2012 (2012-08-09): NISO JATS, v1.0 received ANSI approval.
August 22, 2012 (2012-08-22): ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2012, JATS: Journal Article Tag Suite (version 1.0) published. It supports full backward-compatibility with NLM JATS v3.0.
NISO JATS, version 1.1
December 9, 2013 (2013-12-09): First draft, NISO JATS, v1.1d1 released.
December 29, 2014 (2014-12-29): Second draft, NISO JATS, v1.1d2 released.
April 14, 2015 (2015-04-14): Third draft, NISO JATS, v1.1d released.
October 22, 2015 (2015-10-22): NISO JATS, v1.1 received NISO approval.
November 19, 2015 (2015-11-19): NISO JATS, v1.1 received ANSI approval
January 6, 2016 (2016-01-06): ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2015, JATS: Journal Article Tag Suite, version 1.1 published.
NISO JATS, version 1.2
July 20, 2017 (2017-07-20): First draft, NISO JATS, v1.2d1 released.
May 23, 2018 (2018-05-23): First draft, NISO JATS, v1.2d2 released.
February 8, 2019 (2019-02-08): ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2019, JATS: Journal Article Tag Suite, version 1.2 published.
NISO JATS, version 1.3
July 7, 2021 (2021-07-07): ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2021, JATS: Journal Article Tag Suite, version 1.3 published.
By design, this is a model for journal articles, such as the typical research article found in an
STM journal, and not a model for complete journals.
There are three tag sets:
Journal Archiving and Interchange (Green)
"The most permissive of the Tag Sets," primarily intended for the capture and archiving of extant journal data.
Journal Publishing (Blue)
"A moderately prescriptive Tag Set," intended for general use in journal production and publication.
Formally this model is a subset of the Archiving model. This is the most frequently used JATS variant.
Article Authoring (Orange)
"The most prescriptive [tightest and smallest] of the Tag Sets," intended for the relatively lightweight creation of journal articles valid to JATS.
Formally this model a subset of the Publishing model.
JATS Publishing set defines a document that is a top-level component of a journal such as an article, a book or product review, or a letter to the editor. Each such document is composed of front matter (required) and up to three optional parts. These must appear in the following order:
The article front matter contains the metadata for the article (also called article header information), for example, the article title, the journal in which it appears, the date and issue of publication for that issue of that journal, a copyright statement, etc. Both article-level and issue-level metadata (in the element <article-meta>) and journal-level metadata (in the element <journal-meta>) may be captured.
Body (of the article)
The body of the article is the main textual and graphic content of the article. This usually consists of paragraphs and sections, which may themselves contain figures, tables, sidebars (boxed text), etc. The body of the article is optional to accommodate those repositories that just keep article header information and do not tag the textual content.
If present, the article back matter contains information that is ancillary to the main text, such as a glossary, appendix, or list of cited references.
A publisher may choose to place all the floating objects in an article and its back matter (such as tables, figures, boxed text sidebars, etc.) into a separate container element outside the narrative flow for convenience of processing.
Following the front, body, back, and floating material, there may be either one or more responses to the article or one or more subordinate articles.
The DOCTYPE header is optional, a legacy from
validators. The dtd-version attribute can be used even without a DTD header.
The root element article is common for any version of JATS or "JATS family", as NLM DTDs. The rules for front, body and back tags validation, depends on the JATS version, but all versions have similar structure, with good compatibility in a range of years. The evolution of the schema preserves an overall stability.
Less common, "only front", "only front and back" variations are also used for other finalities than full-content representation. The general article composition (as an
DTD-content expression) is
Generic (from JATS DTD): DtdAnalyzer — compare JATS with other DTDs and helps into create a XML representation, XSLT and Schematron generation, and other tools.
Typeset provides a
WYSIWYM editor for scholarly articles. Supports XML exports in NISO JATS and NLM JATS standards. It is mostly used by Journals and Publishers looking to convert author submitted MS-Word files to XML, PDF, HTML and ePuB.
JATS Framework for oXygen XML Editor: users of oXygen XML Editor and oXygen XML Author can now install support for current versions of NISO JATS (and as a bonus, NLM BITS). Based on an identifier given in a DOCTYPE declaration, oXygen will detect that you are editing a JATS document and provide stylesheets and utilities.
FontoXML for JATS: WYSIWYS editor for editing and reviewing JATS content:
Texture Editor of the Substance Consortium. The first online "born to JATS" editor.
Libero Editor, developed by
eLife describes itself as 'A user-friendly editing interface designed for publishing staff and authors for the production of high-quality JATS XML.'
Tools that render JATS as HTML, usually on fly.
JATS Preview Stylesheets: the JATS Preview Stylesheets are a series of .xsl, .xpl, .css, and .sch files that will create .html or .pdf versions of valid NISO Z39.96-2012 JATS 1.0 files. It is primarily intended for internal use by publishers and a basis for customization.
Typeset - Allows to generate HTML from JATS XML within a click. Also, offers capacity to generate custom HTML based on the requirements of the journal.
PubReader – "The PubReader view is an alternative web presentation ... Designed particularly for enhancing readability on tablet and other small screen devices, PubReader can also be used on desktops and laptops and from multiple web browsers".
Jatsdoc - Produces documentation for any particular JATS customization. Jatsdoc is integrated with NCBI's DtdAnalyzer.
JATS central repositories
As NISO JATS began the de facto and de jure standard for
open access journals, the
scientific community has adopted the JATS repositories as a kind of
legal deposit, sometimes deemed more valuable than the
traditional digital libraries where only a PDF version is stored.
Open knowledge need richer and structured formats as JATS: PDF and JATS must be certified as "same content", and the set "PDF+JATS" forming the unit of legal deposit.
List of JATS repositories and its contained:
These repositories do overlap and the same article can be held by more than one repository.
Alternatives and semantic
There are some effort and experiments using
RDF conversion in the 2012, with no impact in the JATS community.
Later, in ~2016, for
Semantic Web context, with
SchemaOrg initiative, the class
ScholarlyArticle was defined, receiving better reception. It is an initial "JATS-like standardization" for RDF contexts of use.
IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion)
^Donohoe, Paul; Sherman, Jenny; Mistry, Ashwin (2015).
"The Long Road to JATS". Journal Article Tag Suite Conference (JATS-Con) Proceedings 2015.
JATS-Con 2015. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information.
^Constantin, S.Pettifer (2013). "PDFX: Fully-automated PDF-to-XML conversion of scientific literature". Proceedings of the 2013 ACM symposium on Document engineering. pp. 177–180.